By Rob Skinner, MS, RD, CSSD, CSCS

Similar to vitamins, minerals also assist in many body processes and are crucial in muscle contractions, energy expenditure and immune function. Minerals are divided into two groups: Macro minerals, which are required in amounts greater than 100 mg/d and micro minerals, also known as trace elements, are required in amounts less than 100 mg/d. Elite athletes have an increased need for both macro and micro minerals because of the higher stress that is placed on the body during training. The following is a list of all of the minerals, their functions and food sources

Micro minerals


Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body whereas water-soluble vitamins are not. Therefore, it is important to not take too high of a dose of fat soluble vitamins as there could be risk of toxicity and take water-soluble vitamins frequently since they are not stored and are excreted in the urine.


Rob Skinner, MS, RD, CSSD, CSCS is the Sports Dietitian with Acrobat and Combat Sports at the United State Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado. For more information from the US Olympic Training Center, go to

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